KUNNSKAP – International approaches to quality in career guidance

Tristram Hooley
Tristram Hooley

I serien KUNNSKAP gir vi dere et innblikk i fag- og kunnskapsgrunnlag for vårt arbeid med å utvikle faglige forslag til et kvalitetsrammeverk for karriereveiledning i Norge. Du får høre fra relevante fagpersoner, om eksisterende rammeverk og innblikk i sentral faglitteratur.

Tristram Hooley is a researcher and writer who specialises in career and career development. He is Professor II at the Inland Norway University of Applied Science. He also holds professorial roles at the University of Derby and Canterbury Christchurch University in the UK. He is the Chief Research Officer at the Institute of Student Employers. He has worked internationally and is particularly interested in the relationship between career, public policy and social justice. He writes the Adventures in Career Development blog.

This report looks at how a range of countries around the world define quality in career guidance. It argues that the term quality can be used in a variety of ways by different countries. The report was compiled by Professor Tristram Hooley who interviewed key informants in Australia, England, Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and South Korea to construct a series of national case studies. These case studies are presented in full in the report and provide insights into how different countries assure quality in career guidance.

In the report, Professor Hooley argues that there are six domains of quality which countries can focus on: (1) career guidance policies, seeking to monitor, evaluate and check their effectiveness; (2) defining what kinds of organisations should be allowed to deliver career guidance and how those organisations should function; (3) considering what processes should be followed in quality career guidance provision and ensuring that these processes take place; (4) specifying what people can practice career guidance, what qualifications and skills they should have and defining how the profession should be organised and governed; (5) clarifying what outcome or outputs should be produced through the career guidance process and setting out how this can be observed and recognised; and (6) recognising the experience of the consumers and users of career guidance and finding ways to capture their perspective.

The paper draws together a number of conclusions that can inform future developments in Norway.

  1. Each country has assembled a patchwork of quality assurance approaches. This can be useful for ensuring that everything is covered, but there is also a need to avoid duplicating effort.
  2. No country has assembled a single quality assurance approach. Rather quality is assured by a series of decentralised systems across different sectors and jurisdictions.
  3. Career guidance quality systems are often embedded in wider quality systems that exist in the education or employment system.
  4. Systems tend to evolve over time rather than being designed at the outset. Where this happens with the involvement of multiple stakeholder it can lead to richer and more sustainable quality systems.
  5. A quality system cannot just be a framework that is written down. If it is going to have an impact it needs to be implemented and governed carefully.

The report concludes with a number of question and reflections that may be useful in guiding the future development of the quality assurance system for career guidance in Norway.

Read the report (pdf)